The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric-key encryption algorithm that is widely used to secure data. It was developed by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and was first published in 2001. AES is a block cipher, which means that it encrypts data in fixed-size blocks, rather than encrypting it one bit at a time.
One of the key strengths of AES is its security. It has been subjected to extensive analysis and review, and is widely considered to be a very secure algorithm. It is also fast and efficient, making it well-suited for use in a variety of applications.
AES uses a fixed block size of 128 bits and supports three key sizes: 128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits. The larger the key size, the more secure the encryption, but also the more computation required to encrypt and decrypt the data.
AES is a widely used standard, and is found in a variety of applications, including securing data transmitted over networks, encrypting data stored on devices, and protecting data in applications. It is also used to secure sensitive information, such as financial transactions and personal data.
Some of the most commonly used modes of operation for AES include:
- Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode: In this mode, each block of data is encrypted independently, using the same secret key. This can be efficient, but it is also vulnerable to certain types of attacks, such as repetition attacks, where an attacker can identify patterns in the encrypted data that can be used to determine the original data.
- Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode: In this mode, each block of data is encrypted using the secret key and the previous block of encrypted data. This helps to prevent repetition attacks, as it makes it more difficult for an attacker to identify patterns in the encrypted data.
- Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode: In this mode, the secret key is used to encrypt a block of data, and the resulting encrypted block is used to encrypt the next block of data. This helps to prevent repetition attacks and can also provide some additional error detection capabilities.
- Output Feedback (OFB) mode: In this mode, the secret key is used to generate a stream of pseudorandom bits, which are then XORed with the data to be encrypted. This can be efficient, but it is also vulnerable to certain types of attacks, such as replay attacks, where an attacker can capture and reuse the pseudorandom bit stream.